1.Describe Karen Horney’s theory of the tendencies in response to social anxiety or conflict. Give an example of each tendency. 2. Describe the symptoms of the following mental disorders: OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) Bipolar Disorder Major Depression
Karen Horney, a prominent psychoanalytic theorist, developed a comprehensive theory that focuses on the various responses to social anxiety and conflict. According to Horney, individuals develop three main strategies or tendencies in order to cope with these challenges: moving toward others, moving against others, and moving away from others. These tendencies represent different ways in which individuals try to manage their anxiety and gain a sense of security and control in their relationships. While each of these tendencies is designed to address specific needs, they can also lead to maladaptive behaviors and have a significant impact on an individual’s mental well-being.
The first tendency, moving toward others, is characterized by a strong desire for approval, affection, and being liked by others. Individuals who rely on this tendency are excessively compliant, self-sacrificing, and constantly seek reassurance from others. They may fear rejection or abandonment and go to great lengths to maintain close relationships. An example of this tendency can be seen in a person who constantly seeks validation and approval from their romantic partner. They may adjust their opinions, interests, and behaviors to align with their partner’s in order to avoid conflict and maintain a sense of security in the relationship.
The second tendency, moving against others, involves an aggressive and domineering approach towards others. Individuals who adopt this tendency often strive to be in control and seek power over others to alleviate their feelings of vulnerability. They may exhibit competitiveness, assertiveness, and a need for dominance. For example, a person who is constantly seeking to prove their worth and superiority in their workplace may engage in excessive self-promotion, belittling colleagues, and disregarding the contributions of others. Such behavior is driven by a need to protect themselves against perceived threats and to maintain a sense of control in their professional environment.
The third tendency, moving away from others, entails a withdrawal from relationships and a focus on self-sufficiency. Individuals who rely on this tendency may have a strong fear of dependency and avoid close relationships to prevent potential rejection or disappointment. They often seek personal autonomy, emphasize self-reliance, and may distance themselves emotionally from others. An example of this tendency can be observed in someone who avoids forming deep emotional connections with others and prefers solitude or minimal social interaction. They may prioritize their personal achievements and pursue solitary interests to maintain a sense of independence and reduce their vulnerability to social anxiety.
It is important to note that these tendencies are not mutually exclusive, and individuals may exhibit a combination of them in different situations or relationships. Furthermore, Horney emphasized that the adoption of these tendencies is influenced by early experiences and social conditions that shape an individual’s perceptions of themselves and others. Thus, these tendencies can serve as adaptive strategies in certain circumstances, but they can also lead to psychological distress and contribute to the development of various mental disorders.
OCD, or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, is a mental disorder characterized by persistent and intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions). Individuals with OCD experience excessive anxiety and distress, which they try to alleviate through engaging in compulsive behaviors. These behaviors are performed in a ritualistic manner and are often time-consuming, causing significant impairment in daily functioning. Common obsessions include fears of contamination, doubts, and a need for symmetry or order. Compulsions can manifest as repetitive handwashing, checking, or arranging objects in a specific way.