250 words agree or disagree to each questions Q 1. An intimate partner is defined as a current or former spouse, boyfriend, girlfriend, dating partner,

250 words agree or disagree to each questions Q 1. An intimate partner is defined as a current or former spouse, boyfriend, girlfriend, dating partner, or sexual partner. Intimate partners can also be same sex couples. In some states intimate partners are also known as domestic partners. Intimate partner murders of females are approximately 4 to 5 times the rate for male victims (Campbell, Glass, Sharps, Laughon, Bloom 2007). The murder rates for male and female intimate partners have gone down in the past 25 years (Campbell, Glass, Sharps, Laughon, and Bloom 2007). When investigating intimate partner murders male or female the major risk factor for this crime is past cases of domestic violence (Campbell, Glass, Sharps, Laughon, and Bloom 2007). Intimate partner murders without previous domestic violence incidents occurred in 9% of cases (Vatnar, Friestad, and Bjorkly 2017 (Norway 1990-2012)). Intimate partner murders without prior domestic violence incidents research shows the suspects were highly educated and were less likely to have a criminal history (Vatnar, Friestad, and Bjorky 2017 (Norway 1990-2012)). In the late 1960’s the women’s right movement brought attention to intimate partner violence (Gauthier-Chung 2017). Because of the increase in intimate partner violence and intimate partner murders in the 1970’s and 1980’s, many law enforcement agencies throughout the United States changed their procedures when handling these incidents in the early 1990’s (Gauthier-Chung 2017). Before these changes were made women intimate partner victims were often reluctant to prosecute their abusers (Gauthier-Chung 2017). In the eyes of law enforcement agencies and judges in the United States the unwillingness of women intimate partner violence victims to prosecute was evidence the abuse was not that bad or that it was not a valid claim (Showden 2011, P.659). In New York State numerous changes have been made when law enforcement deals with intimate partner incidents (Gauthier-Chung 2017). Starting with when law enforcement responds to intimate partner or domestic incident, when there is evidence a crime has been committed the suspected abuser must be arrested by the investigating agency (Gauthier-Chung 2017). After an arrest has been made the state of New York handles the prosecution process (Gauthier-Chung 2017). In New York state successful prosecution does not require the victim’s cooperation (Gauthier-Chung 2017). New York state prosecutors are able to have successful cases without the victim’s because law enforcement officers have been trained to collect evidence that supports the state’s case (Suk 2009, P. 37). Law enforcement officers gather evidence at the scene of the domestic violence such as photographs of the victim and suspect, photographs of the scene of the incident, and spontaneous statements made by the victim and suspect (Suk 2009, P. 37). Domestic violence calls are the most deadly situations police officers are found in. When responding to domestic violence calls police officers must be cognizant of the involved parties friends, relatives, and associates all of whom can be a danger to officers (Stevens PhD 2018). When dealing with these highly volatile situations officers have to constantly know what state of mind the victim and suspect are in (Stevens PhD 2018). Knowing if the police have ever responded to the dispatched location for domestic incidents in the past, the involved parties’ criminal history, is anyone at the location in question in possession of weapons, and are there any guns / rifles registered at the location (Stevens PhD 2018). Having answers to all these questions is pertinent information that can responding officers remain safe (Stevens PhD 2018). Between 2007– 2016 there were 26 law enforcement officers killed during domestic disturbances calls for service, in that same time period 10 law enforcement officers were killed during burglary incidents, and 9 law enforcement officers were killed during drug – related arrests (FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting program). The more information law enforcement officers have when responding to domestic incidents will save their lives and the lives of others. Sources: Campbell, J. C., Glass, N., Sharps, P. W., Laughon, K., & Bloom, T. (2007). Intimate Partner Homicide. , (3), 246–269. doi: 10.1177/1524838007303505 Gauthier-Chung, M. F. (2017). Hounded Women: The IPV Protocol and the Autonomy of Abuse Victims. , (1), 67–85. doi: 10.1515/mopp-2016-0039 Vatnar, S. K. B., Friestad, C., & Bjørkly, S. (2017). Intimate partner homicide in Norway 1990–2012: Identifying risk factors through structured risk assessment, court documents, and interviews with bereaved. , (3), 395–405. doi: 10.1037/vio0000100 Showden, C. R. (2011). . Minneapolis, MN: Univ. of Minnesota Press. Suk, J. (2011). . New Haven: Yale University Press. Stevens, D. J. (2018). (1st ed.). San Diego, California: Cognella Academic Publishing. FBI Releases 2017 Crime Statistics. (2018, September 24). Retrieved October 10, 2019, from https://www.fbi.gov/news/pressrel/press-releases/fbi-releases-2017-crime-statistics. Q 2. The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment was an investigation to determine if an arrest was an effective aid against future assaults. It was determined that the arrest of the perpetrator decreased future assaults although five duplicate investigations were skeptical of the effectiveness of arresting the batterer. Specialized Domestic Violence Response Units undergo important training to investigate domestic violence while preparing a case without the victims’ testimony in court. Also, a lethality evaluation is used to distinguish which victim is in greater danger but hasn’t been noticed (Gosselin, 2010). Canada, The United States, and The United Kingdom conducted research that explains the similarities and differences of previous lethal and nonlethal intimate partner violence cases.  (Dobash,2009). Violence involves powerful and constant communication among partners and the numerous situations they face (Vantar,2017). Genuine circumstances are recognized, understood and selected according to the mindset of the partner (Magnusson, 1981). It is imperative to examine the IPH method by exploring the more comprehensive set of experiences and occurrences that led to homicide. Sadly, “Sixty percent of homicides involve a female victim being killed by their partner” (Shackelford Todd and Mouzos 2005). The Center for Disease Control and Prevention reports around 5.3 million acts of violence will transpire every year (Sheehan, 2015, Klap,2007) and The Bureau of Justice Statistics (2012) reports that intimate companions were responsible for 14% of all the murders in 2007 that occurred in the United States. Family and intimate friends are normally the first to know the victim is suffering abuse. They are considered co-victims when they lose a loved one to homicide. Signs and risks leading up to the death of an intimate partner include prior abuse patterns and the inability to leave. Separation can cause an abuser to feel like they have lost control over their victim. A woman that escapes a live-in relationship is three times more likely to be killed within the next year. Stalking, weapons, and alcohol are also risks leading to homicide. Dangers an officer encounters on domestic violence calls can be life-threatening. An abuser will often take their rage out on the officer especially if mental illness, alcohol or weapons are involved. Many officers are fatally wounded during domestic calls. I have seen the abused’s attitude change abruptly and attack the officer that was there to . Officers are trained to be highly cautious during these calls. Gosselin, D. K. (2010). Heavy hands: An introduction to the crimes of family violence. 5th ed., Pearson College Division Sheehan, B., Murphy, S., Moynihan, M., Dudley-Fennessey, E., & Stapleton, J. (2015). Intimate Partner Homicide: New Insights for Understanding Lethality and Risks. Violence Against Women, 21(2), 269–288. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801214564687 Vatnar, Solveig Karin Bo; Friestad, Christine; Bjorkly, Stal. (July 2017), Psychology of Violence Vol. 7, Iss. 3, Intimate partner homicide in Norway 1990–2012: Identifying risk factors through structured risk assessment, court documents, and interviews with bereaved, 395-405. DOI:10.1037/vio0000100

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