a disorder of interest discussed in this course. a 1,200- t…

a disorder of interest discussed in this course. a 1,200- to 1,500-word paper on the chosen disorder, describing the following: a minimum of 4 peer-reviewed sources. your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Disorder of Interest: Major Depressive Disorder


Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness, and hopelessness, accompanied by a loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It has a profound impact on an individual’s daily life, as it affects their mood, cognition, behavior, and overall functioning. This paper aims to provide an overview of MDD by describing its diagnostic criteria, etiology, treatment options, and the impact it has on individuals and society. To ensure the credibility and accuracy of the information presented, a minimum of four peer-reviewed sources will be used.

Diagnostic Criteria of Major Depressive Disorder

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) provides the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder. To meet the criteria for MDD, an individual must experience five or more of the following symptoms during the same two-week period, including either persistent sadness or loss of interest or pleasure:

1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day.
2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in almost all activities.
3. Significant weight loss or gain or a decrease or increase in appetite.
4. Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day.
5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation.
6. Fatigue or loss of energy.
7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt.
8. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness.
9. Recurrent thoughts of death, recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt.

At least one of the symptoms should be either a depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure. These symptoms must cause significant distress or impair the individual’s social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The symptoms cannot be attributed to substance abuse or another medical condition.

Etiology of Major Depressive Disorder

The etiology of Major Depressive Disorder is multifactorial and involves a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Firstly, genetic factors play a significant role in the susceptibility to develop MDD, as evidenced by studies comparing the risk among family members. Twin studies have shown a higher concordance rate for MDD among monozygotic twins (1) than dizygotic twins, suggesting a hereditary component.

Secondly, environmental factors such as stressful life events can trigger or exacerbate MDD. Such events include the loss of a loved one, relationship problems, financial difficulties, or chronic illnesses. Chronic stress leads to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and abnormal levels of stress hormones, which can contribute to depressive symptoms.

Thirdly, psychological factors, particularly cognitive processes, are implicated in the development and maintenance of MDD. Individuals with a negative cognitive bias tend to interpret events in a pessimistic manner, perceiving themselves, the world, and the future negatively. This cognitive distortion perpetuates and intensifies depressive symptoms.

Furthermore, neurobiological factors are also involved in MDD’s etiology. Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine, have been implicated in the regulation of mood. Alterations in these neurotransmitter systems can disrupt the delicate balance between neuronal circuits and neurotransmission, resulting in depressive symptoms.

Models such as the diathesis-stress model and the biopsychosocial model attempt to explain MDD’s etiology by integrating multiple factors. The diathesis-stress model proposes that certain individuals possess a genetic or biological vulnerability (diathesis) and are more prone to developing MDD when exposed to environmental stressors. The biopsychosocial model takes a comprehensive approach, considering biological, psychological, and social factors as contributors to MDD.

Treatment Options for Major Depressive Disorder

The treatment of Major Depressive Disorder typically involves a combination of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and lifestyle modifications. Antidepressant medications, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), are commonly prescribed to alleviate depressive symptoms. These medications work by modulating the levels of neurotransmitters implicated in mood regulation.

Psychotherapy, particularly Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Interpersonal Therapy (IPT), has been shown to be effective in treating MDD. CBT aims to identify and modify negative thought patterns and behaviors associated with depression. IPT focuses on resolving interpersonal conflicts and enhancing social support systems. Both approaches empower individuals to develop healthier coping mechanisms and improve their overall well-being.

Finally, lifestyle modifications such as regular exercise, sufficient sleep, a well-balanced diet, and stress management techniques are beneficial in managing depressive symptoms. Engaging in pleasurable activities, socializing, and seeking support from friends and family also play a crucial role in the recovery process.

Impact of Major Depressive Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder not only affects individuals but also has a significant impact on society as a whole. The economic burden of MDD includes direct medical costs, such as hospitalizations and medication expenses, as well as indirect costs related to work productivity loss and disability. Studies have shown that individuals with MDD are more likely to have difficulty maintaining employment and exhibit reduced work productivity compared to their counterparts without MDD.

Furthermore, MDD is associated with an increased risk of comorbidities, such as anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. This not only exacerbates the individual’s suffering but also adds to the healthcare system’s burden.

Additionally, MDD is a leading cause of disability worldwide and is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. The World Health Organization estimates that by the year 2030, MDD will be the leading cause of disease burden in high-income countries and the second leading cause globally.


Major Depressive Disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder that affects individuals’ mental, emotional, and physical well-being. Its diagnosis requires the presence of specific symptoms outlined in the DSM-5. The etiology of MDD involves genetic, environmental, psychological, and neurobiological factors. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and lifestyle modifications. Finally, the impact of MDD is significant on individuals’ lives and society as a whole, leading to substantial economic costs and disability burden. Understanding MDD’s multifaceted aspects is essential for adequate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies.


1. Sullivan PF, Neale MC, Kendler KS. Genetic epidemiology of major depression: review and meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatr. 2000;157(10):1552-1562.