Answer: 1. What kinds of assumptions interfere with critical…

Answer: 1. What kinds of assumptions interfere with critical thinking? 2. What are a few steps that can help you to refine your position on issues that meet the tests of logic?


Critical thinking is a cognitive process that involves analyzing and evaluating information or arguments using rational and logical reasoning. It requires individuals to question assumptions, examine evidence, and consider alternative perspectives before forming a well-reasoned position or conclusion. However, several assumptions can interfere with critical thinking and hinder the ability to think critically. This essay will identify and discuss four common assumptions that can impede critical thinking and propose steps to refine one’s position on issues that meet the tests of logic.

Assumptions interfering with critical thinking:

1. Confirmation bias:

Confirmation bias is the tendency to seek, interpret, and remember information in a way that confirms one’s pre-existing beliefs or hypotheses while disregarding conflicting evidence. This assumption interferes with critical thinking by creating a cognitive filter that skews the interpretation of information and prevents unbiased analysis. To counteract confirmation bias, individuals should actively seek out diverse and opposing viewpoints, carefully evaluate supporting evidence, and remain open to changing their perspectives based on the strength of the arguments presented.

2. Cultural bias:

Cultural bias refers to the influence of one’s cultural background on their perspectives, beliefs, and judgments. It can hinder critical thinking when individuals fail to recognize the inherent biases and assumptions embedded within their own cultural framework. To mitigate cultural bias, individuals should strive to develop cultural competence, be aware of their own cultural biases, and expose themselves to diverse cultural perspectives. By cultivating cultural humility and embracing pluralism, critical thinkers can overcome cultural bias and facilitate a more comprehensive analysis of complex issues.

3. Emotional bias:

Emotional bias occurs when emotions, such as fear, anger, or affection, cloud one’s judgment and provoke an irrational response. This assumption interferes with critical thinking by impeding logical reasoning and decision-making. Overcoming emotional bias requires individuals to cultivate emotional intelligence, which involves recognizing and regulating their own emotions and effectively considering the emotions of others. By acknowledging and understanding their emotional responses, critical thinkers can consciously set aside emotions and make decisions based on logical analysis.

4. Authority bias:

Authority bias refers to the tendency of individuals to uncritically accept information, arguments, or opinions from authoritative figures or sources without questioning their validity. This assumption interferes with critical thinking by stifling independent thought and discouraging individuals from engaging in critical analysis. To counter authority bias, individuals must develop a healthy skepticism and exercise their own critical judgment. This can be achieved by conducting independent research, evaluating evidence, examining counterarguments, and questioning the credibility and expertise of authoritative sources.

Steps to refine positions with logic:

Refining one’s position on issues that meet the tests of logic requires a systematic approach that involves evaluating evidence, considering counterarguments, and ensuring logical consistency. The following steps can help in this process:

1. Acquire and analyze information:

To refine a position, individuals must gather relevant and reliable information related to the issue at hand. This includes exploring multiple sources, examining empirical data, and considering expert opinions. Analyzing this information critically involves identifying any biases, evaluating the quality of evidence, and fact-checking claims.

2. Identify and evaluate assumptions:

Every argument is based on underlying assumptions. It is crucial to identify and evaluate these assumptions to determine their soundness and validity. By critically examining the assumptions, individuals can assess their impact on the overall argument and identify any fallacies or weaknesses.

3. Consider alternative perspectives:

To refine a position, individuals should consider alternative viewpoints and arguments that challenge their initial position. This involves examining counterarguments, engaging in intellectual humility, and putting oneself in the shoes of others. By considering diverse perspectives, individuals can strengthen their arguments and identify potential flaws or gaps in their reasoning.

4. Apply logical reasoning:

Logical reasoning forms the foundation of critical thinking. It involves assessing the coherence, consistency, and validity of arguments. By applying logical principles, such as deductive or inductive reasoning, individuals can refine their positions by ensuring that their arguments are logically sound and supported by evidence.


Critical thinking requires individuals to be aware of and overcome various assumptions that can interfere with the process. By recognizing and addressing assumptions such as confirmation bias, cultural bias, emotional bias, and authority bias, individuals can enhance their ability to think critically. Additionally, following steps that involve gathering information, evaluating assumptions, considering alternative perspectives, and applying logical reasoning can aid in refining one’s position on issues that meet the tests of logic. By actively engaging in these practices, individuals can become more effective critical thinkers and develop a well-reasoned position on complex issues.