As you’ve seen from your reading and research, there are man…

As you’ve seen from your reading and research, there are many different causes of disorders. Choose two disorders and discuss their potential root causes. How would you best help and support a friend with these disorders?


The study of psychological disorders is a complex field that requires a comprehensive understanding of the different factors that contribute to their etiology. Identifying the root causes of disorders is essential for effective intervention and support strategies. This essay will focus on two disorders: depression and anxiety. By examining the potential causes of these disorders, we can gain insight into how best to help and support individuals experiencing them.

Causes of Depression:

Depression is a highly prevalent mental health disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, and low self-esteem. Various factors have been identified as contributors to the development of depression, including biological, environmental, and psychological factors.

Biologically, depression is thought to involve disturbances in the functioning of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and noradrenaline, which regulate mood. Genetic factors also play a role, as individuals with a family history of depression are more likely to develop the disorder. Furthermore, hormonal imbalances, such as dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have been associated with depressive symptoms.

Environmental factors can also influence the onset of depression. Adverse childhood experiences, such as abuse, neglect, or loss of a loved one, can increase the risk of developing depression later in life. Social and interpersonal factors, such as social isolation, lack of social support, or experiencing significant life stressors, can also contribute to depressive symptoms.

Psychological factors, including personality traits, cognitive patterns, and maladaptive coping mechanisms, are significant contributors to depression. Certain personality traits, such as neuroticism and a negative cognitive style, are associated with a higher risk of developing depression. Negative thinking patterns, such as rumination and self-criticism, can exacerbate depressive symptoms. Additionally, ineffective coping strategies, such as avoidance or substance abuse, can further perpetuate depressive episodes.

Causes of Anxiety Disorders:

Anxiety disorders encompass a range of disorders characterized by excessive fear or worry, including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Like depression, anxiety disorders have a multifaceted etiology involving biological, environmental, and psychological factors.

Biologically, anxiety disorders are associated with abnormalities in the production and regulation of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and norepinephrine. Genetic factors also play a role, with evidence of heritability in anxiety disorders. Furthermore, imbalances in the stress response system, including the HPA axis and the amygdala, contribute to heightened anxiety.

Environmental factors can also contribute to the development of anxiety disorders. Traumatic experiences, such as physical or sexual abuse, can increase an individual’s vulnerability to anxiety. Chronic stressors, such as financial difficulties or work-related stress, can also trigger or exacerbate anxiety symptoms. In addition, certain parenting styles, such as overprotectiveness or lack of warmth, can contribute to the development of anxiety disorders in children.

Psychological factors, including cognitive processes and learned behaviors, are important in understanding anxiety disorders. Negative cognitive biases, such as catastrophizing or overestimating threats, can contribute to the maintenance of anxiety symptoms. Conditioning and learning processes, such as classical conditioning and observational learning, can also lead to the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. For example, a person who experiences a panic attack in a specific situation may develop agoraphobia, a fear of being in places or situations where escape might be difficult.

Supporting a Friend with Depression:

When supporting a friend with depression, it is essential to approach the situation with empathy, patience, and understanding. Offering a listening ear while validating their feelings and experiences can provide a supportive environment to express their emotions. Encouraging them to seek professional help, such as therapy or medication, can also be beneficial. Assisting them in finding appropriate resources and accompanying them to appointments can help alleviate any barriers to accessing treatment. Encouraging engagement in self-care activities, such as exercise, sleep, and healthy eating, can contribute to overall well-being. Lastly, maintaining regular contact and checking in on their well-being can provide a sense of social support.

Supporting a Friend with Anxiety:

Supporting a friend with anxiety requires a similar approach of empathy and understanding. Helping them identify and challenge their negative thoughts and cognitive distortions can be empowering. Encouraging relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or mindfulness exercises, can assist in reducing anxiety symptoms. Accompanying them to situations that provoke anxiety and providing reassurance can help build their confidence and gradually expose them to feared situations. Encouraging them to seek professional help, such as therapy or medication, may also be beneficial in managing their anxiety.