Choose 1 of the 3 researchers (Kurt Lewin, Floyd Henry Allpo…

Choose 1 of the 3 researchers (Kurt Lewin, Floyd Henry Allport, or Leon Festinger) and describe the following: Include at least sources in your paper. Use in-text citations and a reference list according to APA-style guidelines

Leon Festinger, a prominent American social psychologist, is well-known for his contributions to the field of cognitive dissonance theory. Born in 1919 in Brooklyn, New York, Festinger obtained his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Iowa in 1942. Throughout his career, he made significant contributions to various areas of social psychology, including attitudes, social comparison, and cognitive dissonance. Festinger’s research on cognitive dissonance, in particular, revolutionized the understanding of human motivation and behavior. This paper will provide an overview of Festinger’s work on cognitive dissonance theory, highlighting its main concepts and implications.

Cognitive dissonance theory, developed by Festinger in the 1950s, aims to explain the discomfort people feel when they hold conflicting beliefs, thoughts, or attitudes. According to Festinger, when individuals experience cognitive dissonance, they are motivated to reduce it by changing their beliefs or behaviors. Festinger’s theory suggests that people seek consistency among their cognitions and that inconsistencies lead to psychological discomfort, which motivates them to resolve the conflict.

One of Festinger’s most influential studies supporting cognitive dissonance theory is the famous “When Prophecy Fails” experiment conducted in 1956. In this study, Festinger and his colleagues infiltrated a doomsday cult that believed the world would end on a specific date. The researchers observed how the cult members reacted when their prophecy failed to come true. They found that instead of abandoning their beliefs, the majority of cult members became even more convinced of the truth of their beliefs. Festinger explained this behavior as a result of the cognitive dissonance experienced by the cult members. Their strong commitment to the prophecy led them to engage in cognitive processes that reduced their dissonance, such as reinterpreting the failure of the prediction as a test of their faith.

Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory has several key concepts. The first concept is the existence of cognitive elements or cognitions, which are thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors held by an individual. Festinger argued that individuals strive for cognitive consistency, meaning they aim to maintain harmonious relationships among their cognitions. When inconsistencies occur between cognitions, cognitive dissonance arises. Cognitive dissonance is the discomfort felt when individuals hold contradictory beliefs or attitudes or when their behavior conflicts with their beliefs or attitudes.

The second concept of cognitive dissonance theory is the motivation to reduce dissonance. According to Festinger, individuals are not passive in the face of cognitive dissonance; rather, they are motivated to reduce the discomfort it causes. This reduction in dissonance can occur through various strategies, such as changing one’s beliefs or attitudes, acquiring new information that supports existing beliefs, or minimizing the importance or relevance of the conflicting cognitions. Festinger proposed that the strength of the motivation to reduce dissonance depends on factors such as the importance of the cognitions, the level of discrepancy between them, and the availability of alternatives.

The third concept of cognitive dissonance theory is the relationship between dissonance and behavior change. Festinger argued that individuals are more likely to change their behavior to align with their beliefs or attitudes when they experience cognitive dissonance. The belief-behavior inconsistency generates psychological discomfort, and individuals are motivated to restore consistency. This can result in behavior change that aligns with existing beliefs or attitudes, as people seek to reduce dissonance.

Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory has had profound implications in various domains. It has been applied to understand numerous phenomena, including attitude change, persuasion, decision-making, and self-justification. The theory has also been utilized in domains such as marketing and advertising to influence consumer behavior. Additionally, Festinger’s work on cognitive dissonance has influenced subsequent research in social psychology, shaping our understanding of motivation and the ways in which individuals resolve conflicts between their beliefs and behavior.

In conclusion, Leon Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory has been a fundamental contribution to the field of social psychology. His theory provides insights into the ways individuals strive for cognitive consistency and experience discomfort when confronted with inconsistencies. Festinger’s research has demonstrated the motivation individuals have to reduce cognitive dissonance and has shed light on the processes through which they resolve conflicts between their beliefs and behaviors. Overall, Festinger’s work on cognitive dissonance has had a lasting impact on our understanding of human motivation and behavior, making him a highly influential researcher in the field of social psychology.


Festinger, L. (1956). When Prophecy Fails: A Social and Psychological Study of a Modern Group that Predicted the Destruction of the World. University of Minnesota Press.

Festinger, L. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford University Press.

Harmon-Jones, E., & Mills, J. (Eds.). (1999). Cognitive Dissonance: Progress on a Pivotal Theory in Social Psychology. American Psychological Association.