Complete the provided “Piaget’s Sensorimotor and Preoperatio…

Complete the provided “Piaget’s Sensorimotor and Preoperational Cognitive Development Stages” matrix worksheet. Within the matrix, use complete sentences and include scholarly references for the analysis. APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

Piaget’s Sensorimotor and Preoperational Cognitive Development Stages Matrix

The study of cognitive development has been a topic of interest and research in developmental psychology for many years. Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist, made significant contributions to our understanding of how children develop cognitive skills. Piaget proposed a stage theory of cognitive development that outlines distinct stages that children progress through as they grow and learn. This matrix will explore Piaget’s sensorimotor and preoperational cognitive development stages, outlining the characteristics and milestones associated with each stage.

Stage 1: Sensorimotor Stage
Age Range: Birth to 2 years old

Characteristics:
1. Limited mental representation: During this stage, infants lack the ability to think about objects or events that are not immediately present. They rely on their senses and motor actions to explore the world around them.
2. Object permanence: In the earlier part of this stage, infants do not understand that objects exist even when they are out of sight. However, as they approach 2 years old, infants start to develop a sense of object permanence and understand that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible.
3. Sensorimotor schemata: Infants form mental representations or schemata as they interact with the environment. These schemata become more sophisticated over time and help infants organize and make sense of their experiences.
4. Goal-directed behavior: As infants develop, they begin to engage in goal-directed behavior. They intentionally act upon objects and people to achieve specific goals.

Milestones:
1. Reflexes (birth to 1 month): Infants are born with a series of innate reflexes that help them survive, such as rooting and sucking.
2. Primary circular reactions (1 to 4 months): Infants start to repeat pleasurable actions they discover by chance, such as sucking their thumb.
3. Secondary circular reactions (4 to 8 months): Infants become more object-oriented and engage in actions that produce interesting outcomes, such as shaking a rattle.
4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8 to 12 months): Infants begin to combine actions to achieve a goal, such as pushing objects out of the way to reach a desired toy.
5. Tertiary circular reactions (12 to 18 months): Infants become more creative in their problem-solving and experiment with different actions to gain new experiences.
6. Mental representation (18 to 24 months): Infants develop the ability to form mental representations of objects and events. They can use symbols and engage in pretend play.

Stage 2: Preoperational Stage
Age Range: 2 to 7 years old

Characteristics:
1. Egocentrism: Children in this stage have difficulty seeing things from another person’s perspective. They often assume that others see things the same way they do.
2. Symbolic representation: Children in the preoperational stage can use symbols to represent objects and events. They engage in pretend play and use objects to stand for something else (e.g., using a block as a phone).
3. Centration: Children focus on only one aspect of a situation and disregard other relevant factors. They have difficulty considering multiple perspectives or viewpoints.
4. Animism: Children attribute lifelike qualities to inanimate objects and may believe they have feelings, thoughts, or intentions.
5. Lack of conservation: Children in this stage have difficulty understanding that certain properties of objects, such as volume or number, remain the same despite changes in appearance.

Milestones:
1. Symbolic play (2 to 4 years): Children engage in pretend play and use objects symbolically to represent other objects or roles.
2. Egocentric thinking (4 to 7 years): Children struggle to understand that other people have different thoughts, feelings, and perspectives.
3. Intuitive reasoning (4 to 7 years): Children make guesses and draw conclusions based on their limited knowledge and observations.
4. Lack of conservation (4 to 7 years): Children have difficulty understanding that certain properties, such as volume or number, remain constant even when the appearance changes.

References:
Berk, L. E. (2013). Child development (9th ed.). Pearson.
Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. International Universities Press.
Piaget, J. (1962). Play, dreams, and imitation in childhood. Norton.