# Constructing Truth TablesIn this assignment, you will constr…

Constructing Truth Tables In this assignment, you will construct truth tables and use them to assess the validity of arguments. to download the assignment, complete the problems listed and save your responses in the Excel document.

Title: Constructing Truth Tables as a Tool for Assessing Argument Validity

Introduction
Constructing truth tables is a fundamental technique used in logic to determine the validity of arguments. Truth tables provide a systematic way of representing and analyzing the truth-value of propositions and their combinations. This method allows us to evaluate the logical relationships between different statements and identify the validity of arguments based on the resulting truth values.

Objective
The objective of this assignment is to construct truth tables and use them as a tool to assess the validity of arguments. By completing the provided problems and saving your responses in the Excel document, you will apply the concepts of truth tables and logical reasoning to analyze and evaluate different argument forms.

Constructing Truth Tables
A truth table is a systematic arrangement of truth values that represent the possible combinations of truth and falsity for a set of propositions. Each row in a truth table corresponds to a distinct combination of truth values for the propositions involved, and the columns represent the individual propositions and their combinations.

To construct a truth table, follow these steps:

Step 1: Identify the propositions involved in the argument.
Start by identifying the distinct statements or propositions present in the argument. Assign a symbol to each proposition to represent it in the truth table. For example, if we have two propositions, “p: The sky is blue” and “q: It is raining,” we can assign the symbols p and q to represent them.

Step 2: Determine the number of rows needed.
The number of rows in a truth table is determined by the number of propositions involved. Since each proposition can have either a true (T) or false (F) value, the total number of rows is 2^n, where n is the number of propositions. For example, if we have two propositions (p and q), we will need 2^2 = 4 rows in our truth table.

Step 3: Assign truth values to each proposition in each row.
In each row of the truth table, assign a truth value (T/F) to each proposition. Start from the top row and proceed systematically, altering the truth values as needed. Remember that each distinct proposition should have a distinct column in the truth table.

Step 4: Evaluate logical connectives and connective combinations.
Next, determine the truth value of each combination involving the propositions. This includes logical connectives such as conjunction (AND), disjunction (OR), negation (NOT), implication (IF-THEN), and bi-implication (IF AND ONLY IF). Use the truth-functional definitions of these connectives to determine the resulting truth value.

Step 5: Analyze the final column for truth values of the entire argument.
The final column of the truth table represents the truth value of the entire argument for each combination of truth values. Analyze this column to determine the validity of the argument. If the final column only contains true values (T), the argument is valid; otherwise, it is invalid.

Assessing Argument Validity
Once the truth table is constructed, we can use it to assess the validity of an argument. An argument is considered valid if and only if there are no rows in the truth table where all the premises (hypotheses) are true, and the conclusion is false. In other words, if the truth values in the final column consistently evaluate to true (T) for all possible combinations of truth values, the argument is valid.