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Title: An Analysis of Required Materials in Higher Education


In higher education, required materials play a crucial role in the learning process. These materials, such as textbooks, articles, and online resources, provide students with the necessary information and tools to succeed in their academic endeavors. However, the selection and procurement of these materials have raised concerns among students, faculty, and administrators. This analysis aims to examine the use of required materials in higher education, including the challenges associated with their acquisition, the impact on student learning outcomes, and potential alternative approaches to address these issues.

Challenges in Acquiring Required Materials:

The acquisition of required materials poses various challenges for both students and institutions. One significant challenge is the high cost of textbooks. Over the years, the price of textbooks has skyrocketed, placing a significant burden on students’ financial resources. This financial strain often leads to students forgoing the purchase of required materials, resulting in a potential negative impact on their academic performance.

Additionally, the availability and accessibility of required materials also present challenges. Some materials may be out of print, leading to limited availability in the market. Furthermore, students from disadvantaged backgrounds may face barriers in accessing required materials due to limited access to technology or internet connectivity. These challenges raise questions about equity and inclusivity in higher education, as students may be at a disadvantage if they cannot access the necessary resources.

Impact on Student Learning Outcomes:

The use of required materials has a direct impact on student learning outcomes. Studies have shown that students who possess the necessary materials perform better academically compared to those who do not. Required materials often provide essential content, examples, and exercises that support the learning objectives of a course. They serve as a foundation for in-class discussions and assignments, enabling students to engage with the subject matter more effectively.

Moreover, required materials also contribute to the development of critical thinking and analytical skills. Textbooks and scholarly articles expose students to different perspectives and theoretical frameworks, encouraging them to think critically and deepen their understanding of the subject matter. By engaging with a variety of sources, students can integrate diverse viewpoints into their learning and develop a more holistic understanding of the topic.

Despite these positive impacts, the lack of access to required materials can hinder student success. Without access to the necessary resources, students may struggle to fully grasp the course content or participate actively in class discussions. This inequality in access to required materials can contribute to the achievement gap, potentially widening disparities among students based on their socio-economic backgrounds.

Alternative Approaches:

To address the challenges associated with required materials, several alternative approaches have been proposed. One approach is the use of Open Educational Resources (OERs). OERs are freely accessible learning materials that can be used, modified, and shared by educators. By utilizing OERs, institutions can reduce the financial burden on students while ensuring access to relevant and up-to-date materials. Additionally, OERs promote collaboration and open pedagogy, encouraging faculty to contribute their expertise and enhance the overall quality of learning resources.

Another approach is the adoption of inclusive access programs. In these programs, institutions negotiate with publishers to provide digital course materials to students at a significantly reduced cost. This model can ensure that all students have access to required materials from the first day of class, eliminating financial barriers and promoting a more equitable learning environment.


Required materials play a crucial role in higher education, providing students with essential information and resources to support their learning. However, challenges related to cost, availability, and accessibility hinder students’ access to these materials, potentially impacting their academic performance. By exploring alternative approaches such as OERs and inclusive access programs, institutions can ensure a more inclusive and equitable learning environment, ultimately improving student learning outcomes in higher education.