Please answer all the questions in this study guide.Doesn’t…

Please answer all the questions in this study guide. Doesn’t matter how long is the answers I have uploaded the study guide and chapter 12 +13 and 2 articles >>>the ones we have covered this week

Study Guide Questions:

1. Discuss the concept of cognitive dissonance and the role it plays in attitude change.
2. Explain the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) and how it explains persuasion and attitude change.
3. Compare and contrast the central route and peripheral route to persuasion.
4. Describe the factors that influence the effectiveness of persuasive messages.
5. Discuss the concept of conformity and the factors that influence conformity.
6. Explain the bystander effect and the factors that contribute to it.
7. Describe the factors that influence obedience to authority.
8. Discuss the concept of social facilitation and the factors that contribute to it.
9. Compare and contrast social loafing and the free rider effect.
10. Describe the factors that contribute to groupthink and provide examples.
11. Explain the concept of deindividuation and the factors that contribute to it.
12. Discuss the factors that contribute to prejudice and discrimination.
13. Explain the concept of stereotypes and discuss the impact they have on individuals and society.
14. Describe the factors that influence pro-social behavior.
15. Discuss the bystander intervention decision model and how it explains helping behavior.

Chapter 12 – Attitudes and Persuasion

Attitudes refer to an individual’s overall evaluations or feelings toward a person, object, or situation. They can range from positive to negative and can play a significant role in influencing behavior. Persuasion, on the other hand, refers to the process of intentionally changing someone’s attitudes or beliefs through communication.

Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that individuals experience discomfort when their attitudes and behaviors are inconsistent. This inconsistency creates a state of tension, known as cognitive dissonance, which motivates individuals to reduce the discomfort by changing their attitudes or behaviors. By leveraging cognitive dissonance, persuasive messages can be effective in changing attitudes.

The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) proposes that there are two routes to persuasion: the central route and the peripheral route. The central route is characterized by individuals engaging in a high level of cognitive effort to process and evaluate persuasive messages. This route relies on the strength and quality of the arguments presented. In contrast, the peripheral route involves individuals being influenced by peripheral cues, such as the attractiveness of the speaker or the emotional appeal of the message.

The central route is more likely to result in lasting attitude change, as it involves critical thinking and evaluation of the information provided. On the other hand, the peripheral route may lead to temporary attitude change, as it relies on superficial cues that may not be as persuasive in the long term.

Several factors influence the effectiveness of persuasive messages. These include the credibility and expertise of the communicator, the attractiveness of the communicator, the use of emotional appeals, the presence of counterarguments, the timing of the message, and the target audience’s personal involvement and motivation. Understanding these factors can help in designing more persuasive messages.

Chapter 13 – Social Influence

Conformity refers to the tendency of individuals to adjust their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to align with those of a group or societal norms. It is influenced by various factors such as the size and unanimity of the group, the presence of social norms, and the desire for social approval. Compliance, on the other hand, refers to changing one’s behavior in response to a direct request from someone else.

The bystander effect is a phenomenon where individuals are less likely to intervene or help in an emergency situation when others are present. This diffusion of responsibility occurs because individuals believe that someone else will take action, leading to decreased personal responsibility.

The bystander effect is influenced by factors such as the number of bystanders, the perceived competence of others, the ambiguity of the situation, and the presence of others who are not helping. Understanding these factors can help in promoting more helpful behavior in emergency situations.

Obedience to authority refers to the tendency of individuals to comply with orders or requests from an authority figure. This phenomenon was famously demonstrated in Stanley Milgram’s obedience studies, where participants were instructed to administer electric shocks to a confederate under the belief that it was part of a scientific study. The study revealed that individuals were willing to inflict harm on others when instructed by an authoritative figure.

The factors that influence obedience include the perceived legitimacy and power of the authority figure, the proximity of the authority figure, the presence of other individuals who are also obeying, and the absence of dissenting voices. Understanding these factors can help in addressing unethical obedience and promoting ethical behavior.

Social facilitation refers to the tendency of individuals to perform better on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. This phenomenon occurs because the presence of others increases arousal and alertness, which can enhance performance. However, social facilitation can also lead to the opposite effect, known as social inhibition, where individuals perform worse on complex or new tasks in the presence of others. The factors that contribute to social facilitation include the presence of an audience, the evaluation apprehension, and the mere presence of others.