the “Nonexperimental Research Methods in Psychology” video l…

the “Nonexperimental Research Methods in Psychology” video located in this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings. the University of Phoenix Material: Descriptive Methods Worksheet. Make sure to answer the questions comprehensively. Purchase the answer to view it

Descriptive research methods are widely used in the field of psychology to gather information about a particular phenomenon or behavior. It involves observing and describing individuals or groups without manipulating any variables. This type of research is mainly focused on describing and understanding the current state and characteristics of the subject of interest. In this assignment, we will explore the different types of descriptive research methods used in psychology.

The first component of the University of Phoenix Material: Descriptive Methods Worksheet asks about the three main types of descriptive methods used in psychology. These three main types are naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys. Let’s examine each of these methods in detail.

1. Naturalistic observation: Naturalistic observation involves observing individuals in their natural environment without any interference or manipulation by the researcher. The researchers aim to record behaviors, interactions, and characteristics of the subjects as they occur naturally. This method allows psychologists to gain insight into the everyday behaviors of individuals without artificial settings or influences. For example, a psychologist may observe children playing in a park to understand their social interactions, communication patterns, and problem-solving abilities.

2. Case studies: Case studies involve in-depth examination of a particular individual, group, or situation. Researchers collect extensive information about the subject of interest through various sources such as interviews, observations, and document analysis. Case studies are particularly useful when investigating rare or unique phenomena and when it is not possible or ethical to manipulate variables. These studies provide detailed insights into specific cases and contribute to the understanding of individual behavior. For instance, a psychologist may conduct a case study on an individual with a rare psychological disorder to understand the causes, symptoms, and treatment options associated with that disorder.

3. Surveys: Surveys involve gathering information from a large number of individuals by asking them a series of standardized questions. Surveys can be conducted through various methods, including face-to-face interviews, phone interviews, and online questionnaires. This method allows researchers to collect data from a large and diverse population in a relatively short period. Surveys are commonly used to study attitudes, beliefs, preferences, and opinions of individuals. For example, a psychologist may administer a survey to college students to investigate their attitudes towards mental health services on campus.

The second component of the worksheet asks about the advantages and disadvantages of each descriptive method. Let’s discuss the strengths and limitations of each method:

1. Naturalistic observation:
– Advantages: Naturalistic observation provides a realistic depiction of behaviors in their natural setting, allowing for a better understanding of their context and complexity. It also minimizes the bias that may arise from artificial laboratory settings.
– Limitations: Naturalistic observation is often time-consuming and expensive. The researcher may not have control over the variables present in the natural setting, making it difficult to establish cause-effect relationships. There is also a risk of observer bias, as the researcher may interpret behaviors differently.

2. Case studies:
– Advantages: Case studies provide detailed and in-depth information about individual cases, allowing for a comprehensive understanding of complex phenomena. They can provide valuable insights into rare or unique situations, events, or behaviors.
– Limitations: Case studies are limited in generalizability, as the findings may not be applicable to other individuals or situations. They heavily rely on qualitative data, which may be subject to researcher bias or interpretation. The researcher’s subjective judgments may influence the interpretation of data.

3. Surveys:
– Advantages: Surveys allow for the collection of large amounts of data from a diverse population. They are efficient in terms of time and resources. Surveys also enable researchers to quantify responses and analyze data statistically.
– Limitations: Surveys rely on self-reporting, which may be influenced by social desirability bias or memory recall errors. The questions asked in surveys need to be carefully designed to ensure clarity and avoid ambiguity. The sample selection process may introduce sampling bias and limit the generalizability of the findings.

In conclusion, descriptive research methods in psychology, such as naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys, play a crucial role in understanding and describing various phenomena and behaviors. Each method has its own strengths and limitations, and researchers need to carefully consider these factors when choosing the most appropriate method for their study. Descriptive research provides valuable insights into the current state and characteristics of the subject of interest, forming the basis for further research and theoretical advancements in the field of psychology.