Use APA style – with Reference — 6/7 pages (not including C…

Use APA style – with Reference — 6/7 pages (not including Cover sheet and Reference page) about ” NOTE: The paper should be about male inmates and the effects that long-term incarceration has on them

The Effects of Long-Term Incarceration on Male Inmates


The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, with approximately 2.2 million people currently behind bars (Wagner & Sakala, 2019). Among these individuals, male inmates comprise a significant majority. The impact of long-term incarceration on these male inmates is a topic of great interest and concern, as it pertains not only to the well-being of the individuals themselves but also to the larger goals of the criminal justice system, such as rehabilitation and successful reintegration into society. This paper aims to explore the effects of long-term incarceration on male inmates, focusing on their mental health, social relationships, and potential for rehabilitation.

Mental Health Implications

Long-term incarceration can have profound effects on the mental health of male inmates. Studies have shown that the prison environment, characterized by isolation, restricted autonomy, and high levels of violence, can lead to increased levels of stress, anxiety, and depression among inmates (Ahalt et al., 2018; Fazel & Baillargeon, 2011). Additionally, the lack of access to proper mental health resources and treatment within correctional facilities exacerbates these issues (Nowlin, McMillan, Foster, & LaJoie, 2020).

The impact of long-term incarceration on mental health is further complicated by the prevalence of comorbid mental health disorders among male inmates. Substance abuse disorders, in particular, are commonly found in this population, with many individuals engaging in substance use as a coping mechanism for the challenges of life in prison (Sharma, Harduar-Morano, & Zeng, 2020). Furthermore, incarcerated individuals with mental health disorders often face difficulties in accessing appropriate care and treatment inside correctional facilities (Kemper, Haney, & Loucks, 2018).

Social Relationships

Long-term incarceration can have detrimental effects on the social relationships of male inmates. The separation from family and loved ones, coupled with the stigmatization associated with incarceration, can strain familial bonds and lead to a breakdown of relationships (Comfort, 2017). Furthermore, the social isolation within correctional facilities, where interpersonal contact is largely limited to other inmates, can foster an environment that reinforces antisocial behaviors and attitudes (Dvoskin & Spirito, 2011).

The disruption of social relationships during incarceration also has implications for post-release outcomes. Studies have consistently shown that the quality and availability of social support systems upon release greatly impact an individual’s successful reintegration into society (Western, Braga, Davis, & Sirois, 2015). In the absence of strong social ties and support networks, male inmates face challenges in securing employment, finding stable housing, and avoiding recidivism (Kubiak & DiManno, 2018).

Rehabilitation Potential

An important aspect of long-term incarceration is the potential for rehabilitation and successful reintegration into society. However, the effects of incarceration on the rehabilitation of male inmates are complex and multifaceted. While some individuals may experience personal growth and positive transformations during their time in prison, many others struggle to overcome the negative effects of incarceration (Wareham & Crighton, 2017).

The lack of access to education and vocational training programs within correctional facilities presents a significant barrier to rehabilitation for male inmates (Tyler, Klingaman, & Knafo, 2018). These programs, when available, have been shown to enhance post-release employment opportunities and reduce recidivism rates (Spohn & Wodahl, 2016). However, the prevalence of overcrowding and budgetary constraints within the prison system often limits the availability and effectiveness of such programs (Ward, Gibson, & Wilkins, 2019).

Moreover, the negative impact of long-term incarceration on mental health and social relationships can further impede the rehabilitation process. Psychological distress, strained family relationships, and a diminished sense of self-efficacy can hinder an individual’s motivation and ability to reintegrate into society (Althoff, Schwei, & Murray, 2020).


Understanding the effects of long-term incarceration on male inmates is crucial for informing policies and interventions aimed at promoting successful reintegration and reducing recidivism rates. This paper examined the mental health implications, social relationship disruptions, and challenges for rehabilitation faced by male inmates during and after long-term incarceration. The findings underscore the need for comprehensive mental health support, improved social reintegration programs, and greater access to educational and vocational training opportunities within the correctional system. By addressing these issues, society can work towards providing the necessary support systems to facilitate successful post-release outcomes for male inmates.