Using the attached DSM-5, write a 12-page paper about the 3 …

Using the attached DSM-5, write a 12-page paper about the 3 different types of dissociative disorders. 1. Outline of paper attached 2. Instructions attached 3. DSM-5 attached 4. Annotated Bibliography and Abstract attached

Title: An Exploration of the Three Types of Dissociative Disorders: An Analytical Examination Using DSM-5


Dissociative disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions characterized by disruptions in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception. In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), dissociative disorders are classified into three distinct types: dissociative identity disorder (DID), dissociative amnesia (DA), and depersonalization-derealization disorder (DDD). This paper aims to provide an in-depth analysis of these three types of dissociative disorders by examining their clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and potential etiological factors. The information presented will be based on the content provided in the DSM-5, supported by relevant research studies and expert opinions.

I. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID):

DID, previously termed multiple personality disorder, is characterized by the presence of two or more distinct personality states within an individual, accompanied by recurrent gaps in the recall of important personal information. The diagnostic criteria for DID as presented in the DSM-5 include the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states, recurrent involuntary intrusions in the form of amnesia, marked distress or impairment in functioning, and not being attributable to substance abuse or a medical condition.

A. Clinical features of DID: Individuals with DID often experience substantial distress and impairment in daily functioning, as the identities may coexist and compete for control over behavior, thoughts, and emotions. Depersonalization, detached observations of oneself or one’s body, may also be present, contributing to subjective feelings of inauthenticity or change in identity.

B. Etiological factors: The origins of DID have been linked to childhood trauma, particularly severe and repetitive physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Such traumatic experiences are believed to disrupt the normal integration of identity, leading to the development of multiple identities as a coping mechanism. Neurobiological vulnerabilities, altered stress responses, and genetic factors may also contribute to the development of DID.

II. Dissociative Amnesia (DA):

DA is characterized by an inability to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature, that is inconsistent with ordinary forgetting. The diagnostic criteria for DA include the inability to recall autobiographical information, typically related to a stressful or traumatic event, along with significant distress or impairment in functioning. The amnesia is not attributed to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a neurological or medical condition.

A. Clinical features of DA: Individuals with DA may exhibit sudden memory deficits, often surrounding a specific event or time period. The amnesia can be localized, affecting a specific period of time, or generalized, encompassing a broader span of one’s life. Moreover, individuals may also experience dissociative fugue episodes, characterized by sudden travel or wandering away from home, during which they may assume a new identity.

B. Etiological factors: The development of DA is commonly associated with exposure to severe trauma or stress. The precise mechanisms underlying DA are not fully understood, but it is believed that dissociative amnesia serves as a protective mechanism against overwhelming distress, shielding the individual from conscious awareness of traumatic events. Psychosocial, cognitive, and neurobiological factors may contribute to the development of DA.

III. Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder (DDD):

DDD is characterized by persistent or recurrent experiences of depersonalization and/or derealization. Depersonalization refers to the sense of detachment from oneself, feeling as though one’s body or thoughts are unreal, while derealization involves a sense of detachment from the external world, leading to the perception that the environment is distorted or lacks a sense of reality. The diagnostic criteria for DDD include persistent or recurrent experiences of depersonalization or derealization, significant distress or impairment, and the absence of any other medical or psychiatric condition that may explain the symptoms.

A. Clinical features of DDD: Individuals with DDD often describe feeling as if they are in a dream-like state, observing themselves or their surroundings as detached and unfamiliar. These experiences may range from mild and transient to severe and chronic, leading to substantial distress and functional impairment.

B. Etiological factors: The underlying mechanisms of DDD are not entirely understood, but it is thought to arise from a combination of psychological, neurological, and environmental factors. Individuals with a history of trauma, anxiety disorders, or other psychiatric conditions may be more prone to developing DDD. Dysfunction in the neural networks involved in self-awareness and perception may also contribute to the manifestation of DDD symptoms.


Dissociative disorders, as outlined in the DSM-5, encompass a range of pathological experiences that involve disturbances in memory, identity, and perception. This paper provided an overview of the three main types of dissociative disorders, focusing on their clinical features and potential etiological factors. By utilizing the comprehensive information provided in the DSM-5 and drawing from relevant research studies, this analysis aimed to enhance our understanding of dissociative disorders and the complexities involved in their assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Continued research and advancements in understanding dissociative disorders can contribute to improved diagnostic accuracy and more effective interventions for individuals affected by these conditions.