what are some humanistic and existential theories? Which has had the greatest effect on studying personality? Why? please only between a 200-300 word count with one reference required due tonight by 11pm eastern time please
Humanistic and existential theories are two different approaches within psychology that have had a significant impact on studying personality. Humanistic theories emphasize an individual’s potential for growth, self-actualization, and the importance of subjective experiences. Existential theories, on the other hand, focus on the individual’s search for meaning and purpose in life and the inevitability of existential challenges such as death and isolation.
One of the most influential humanistic theories is Carl Rogers’ person-centered approach. Rogers believed that individuals have an innate tendency to strive for self-actualization and reach their full potential. He emphasized the importance of congruence between self-perception and actual experiences, as well as the need for positive regard from others. According to Rogers, when individuals receive unconditional positive regard and experience empathy from others, they are more likely to develop a positive self-concept and engage in healthy personal growth.
Another influential humanistic theory is Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Maslow proposed that individuals have a hierarchy of needs that must be satisfied in order to reach self-actualization. These needs range from basic physiological needs to higher-order needs such as self-esteem and self-actualization. Maslow believed that individuals strive to fulfill these needs in a hierarchical manner, with the ultimate goal of self-actualization.
Existential theories, on the other hand, focus on the individual’s search for meaning and purpose in life. One of the most prominent existential theorists is Viktor Frankl, who developed logotherapy. Frankl believed that the primary motivation in life is the search for meaning, and that individuals can find meaning even in the midst of suffering. He emphasized the importance of taking responsibility for one’s own choices and finding purpose in life through meaningful activities and relationships.
In terms of their impact on studying personality, it is difficult to determine which approach has had the greatest effect. Both humanistic and existential theories have made significant contributions to our understanding of personality and have influenced various branches of psychology.
However, it can be argued that humanistic theories have had a broader impact on studying personality due to their focus on the individual’s subjective experiences and self-actualization. Humanistic theories have emphasized the importance of understanding and appreciating the individual’s unique perspective and have provided a framework for promoting personal growth and well-being.
The person-centered approach, in particular, has had a significant influence on clinical psychology and counseling. The emphasis on empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence in the therapeutic relationship has shaped the way therapists interact with their clients and has been found to be effective in promoting positive outcomes.
Additionally, humanistic theories have also contributed to positive psychology, which seeks to understand and promote optimal human functioning. Positive psychology research has explored topics such as happiness, well-being, and flourishing, all of which are closely aligned with the humanistic perspective.
In conclusion, both humanistic and existential theories have made important contributions to the study of personality. While it is challenging to determine which approach has had the greatest effect, humanistic theories, particularly the person-centered approach, have had a broader impact on studying personality due to their focus on subjective experiences, self-actualization, and personal growth. These theories have significantly influenced clinical psychology, counseling, and positive psychology, shaping our understanding of personality and promoting well-being.
Rogers, C. R. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality, and interpersonal relationships, as developed in the client-centered framework. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A Study of a Science. Volume 3: Formulations of the Person and the Social Context (pp. 184-256). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.