What are some of the chronic and acute physiological effect…

What are some of the chronic and acute physiological effects of alcohol use?  150 words min According to the latest version of the , what are the signs and symptoms of alcohol use disorder? 150 words min

Alcohol use can have a range of chronic and acute physiological effects on the human body. Chronic effects refer to those that occur over an extended period of alcohol consumption, while acute effects are immediate and occur after a single episode of drinking. It is essential to understand the physiological impact of alcohol use to comprehend the potential harms it can cause.

Chronic alcohol use can lead to various physiological changes in different organ systems. One key area affected is the liver, which can develop conditions such as alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and ultimately, cirrhosis. Chronic alcohol use can also impact the cardiovascular system, leading to high blood pressure, irregular heart rhythms, and an increased risk of heart disease. Additionally, alcohol use can contribute to pancreatic inflammation, known as pancreatitis, and compromise immune system function, making individuals more susceptible to infections.

On the other hand, acute effects of alcohol use encompass immediate physiological changes that occur shortly after consuming alcohol. These effects can vary depending on factors such as the amount consumed, individual tolerance, and the rate of consumption. Common acute effects include reduced inhibitions, impaired judgment, decreased reaction time, and motor coordination. These effects can contribute to the increased risk of accidents and injuries associated with alcohol use, particularly when driving or participating in activities requiring physical coordination.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), provides guidelines for diagnosing alcohol use disorder (AUD). AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by the compulsive and problematic consumption of alcohol. The DSM-5 outlines specific criteria for diagnosing AUD, with the presence of at least two or more of the following symptoms within a 12-month period:

1. Alcohol is often consumed in larger amounts or over a more extended period than intended.
2. Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control alcohol use.
3. A significant amount of time is spent acquiring, using, or recovering from the effects of alcohol.
4. Craving or a strong desire or urge to use alcohol.
5. Recurrent alcohol use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued alcohol use despite persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by its effects.
7. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced due to alcohol use.
8. Recurrent alcohol use in situations where it is physically hazardous.
9. Alcohol use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to be caused or exacerbated by alcohol.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either needing to consume more alcohol to achieve the desired effect or a diminished effect with continued consumption of the same amount.
11. Withdrawal, indicated by the characteristic withdrawal syndrome or using alcohol to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

These criteria aid in the diagnosis of AUD and allow healthcare professionals to assess the severity of the disorder. AUD can range from mild to moderate to severe, depending on the number of criteria met. Proper diagnosis and identification of AUD is crucial for guiding treatment interventions and providing appropriate support to individuals struggling with alcohol-related problems.