You have to read 1 and second descartes and you have to give…

You have to read 1 and second descartes and you have to give answer to question it has 8 questions. it has 9 questions you have to answer it. Purchase the answer to view it

Question 1:
Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy is a groundbreaking philosophical work that explores the nature of knowledge, existence, and the existence of God. In this work, Descartes presents several arguments to demonstrate how our knowledge of the external world can be uncertain. One of the key arguments he puts forth is the argument from illusion. This argument challenges our trust in our senses and raises questions about the reliability of our sensory perceptions.

Descartes begins by presenting the problem of sensory illusions. He points out that our senses sometimes deceive us, like when we see a stick in water and perceive it as bent even though we know it is straight. These sensory illusions make us doubt the reliability of our senses and the information they provide us about the external world. Descartes concludes that if our senses can deceive us in some cases, then it is possible that they can deceive us in all cases.

Descartes also argues that the information we gather through our senses is not always clear and distinct. Our senses often provide us with ambiguous or incomplete information, and it is our mind that fills in the gaps or makes sense of the information. This raises the question of whether the information our senses provide us is accurate or whether it is a creation of our own mind.

To further challenge our trust in our senses, Descartes introduces the dream argument. He suggests that when we dream, we often experience situations and events that seem just as real as our waking experiences. While we are dreaming, we have no immediate awareness that the events are not real, and it is only upon waking that we realize they were just illusions of our mind. This leads Descartes to question whether our waking experiences are also just illusions created by our mind.

Descartes concludes that the only way to escape the doubts raised by the argument from illusion and the dream argument is to suspend judgment on the reliability of our senses and the existence of the external world. He proposes the method of doubt as a means to achieve this. By doubting everything that can be doubted, Descartes aims to find a foundation of certainty on which he can build his knowledge.

In his pursuit of certainty, Descartes arrives at the famous phrase, “I think, therefore I am” or “cogito, ergo sum.” This proposition serves as the starting point of his philosophy. Descartes argues that even if everything else is uncertain, the fact that he is doubting and thinking proves that he exists. This certainty is based on the fact that doubting and thinking are actions that require a thinking subject. Therefore, Descartes asserts that his existence is indubitable.

Descartes continues his journey of doubt, considering the possibility that he is being deceived by an evil demon or a powerful deceiver. He argues that if there is such a powerful deceiver, then it is likely that he would be deceived about other things as well, including the existence of the external world and the reliability of his senses. Based on this doubt, Descartes concludes that he cannot trust any of his beliefs that are based on sensory perceptions.

Overall, Descartes’ argument from illusion and the dream argument challenge our trust in our senses and raise doubts about the reliability of our sensory perceptions. By introducing the method of doubt, Descartes aims to find a foundation of certainty upon which he can build his knowledge. The famous “cogito, ergo sum” proposition serves as the starting point for Descartes’ philosophy, providing him with an indubitable foundation for his existence.