You need to write a 1000-1500 word paper for this research r…

You need to write a 1000-1500 word paper for this research report. And please do not plagiarize. this is the link for the research report:http://pscresearch.faculty.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/112/2015/03/Bales-2013-Chronic-intranasal-oxytocin.pdf and this is the link for paper template:http://pscresearch.faculty.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/112/2014/08/FormatPaperOption.pdf

Title: The Effects of Chronic Intranasal Oxytocin Administration

Introduction:
Oxytocin, a hormone and neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus, has gained substantial attention due to its role in social behavior and bonding. While traditionally known for its role in childbirth and lactation, recent research has highlighted oxytocin’s potential implications in empathy, trust, and social cognition. This paper aims to critically analyze the research report by Bales (2013) titled “Chronic Intranasal Oxytocin Administration” to understand the effects of chronic oxytocin administration on various aspects of social behavior in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

Background:
The prairie vole is known for its monogamous behavior, making it an excellent model organism to study social bonding. Previous studies have shown that intranasal administration of oxytocin enhances pair bonding and social recognition abilities in voles. Bales (2013) aimed to investigate the long-term effects of chronic intranasal oxytocin administration on prairie voles’ social behaviors.

Methodology:
The study utilized adult male and female prairie voles, which were divided into three groups: oxytocin-treated, saline-treated, and untreated (control). The oxytocin-treated group received chronic intranasal oxytocin administration, while the saline-treated group received an equivalent volume of saline solution. The control group did not receive any treatment.

The researchers assessed the social behaviors of the voles through various behavioral tasks. These tasks included partner preference tests to evaluate pair bonding, social discrimination tests to assess the ability to recognize familiar and unfamiliar voles, and novel object recognition tests to measure memory functioning. The effects of chronic oxytocin administration on anxiety-like behaviors, aggression, and parental care were also investigated.

Results and Discussion:
Bales (2013) reported several significant findings regarding the effects of chronic intranasal oxytocin administration on prairie voles’ social behaviors. The oxytocin-treated group exhibited significantly higher levels of partner preference compared to the saline-treated and control groups. This suggests that chronic oxytocin administration enhances pair bonding in voles, thus reinforcing previous research.

Furthermore, the oxytocin-treated group demonstrated enhanced social recognition abilities compared to the saline-treated and control groups. This was evident from the social discrimination tests, where the oxytocin-treated voles spent more time investigating unfamiliar voles, indicating better recognition of socially relevant stimuli. The improved social recognition may be attributed to the increased sensitivity to the social cues facilitated by the chronic oxytocin administration.

Interestingly, chronic intranasal oxytocin administration did not significantly affect anxiety-like behaviors in voles, as measured by the elevated plus maze test. This finding contrasts with some prior studies, which reported decreased anxiety-related behaviors following acute oxytocin administration. It is possible that the chronic administration may lead to different long-term effects or that the experimental conditions influenced the voles’ anxiety responses.

Regarding aggression, the oxytocin-treated group did not exhibit any significant differences compared to the saline-treated or control groups. This suggests that chronic oxytocin administration does not directly alter aggression levels in prairie voles. However, further research is necessary to explore the potential modulatory effects of oxytocin on aggression in different contexts.

The study also investigated the effects of chronic oxytocin administration on parental care behaviors in prairie voles. Interestingly, male voles in the oxytocin-treated group demonstrated increased paternal care compared to the saline-treated and control groups. This finding highlights the potential role of oxytocin in promoting paternal care, which is consistent with studies on the role of oxytocin in parental behavior in other species.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, Bales (2013) provides valuable insights into the effects of chronic intranasal oxytocin administration on various social behaviors in prairie voles. The results indicate that chronic oxytocin administration enhances pair bonding, improves social recognition, and promotes paternal care in voles. The study also emphasizes the need for further investigations to fully understand the complex mechanisms underlying the effects of oxytocin in different species and contexts.